In the path analysis, the key independent variable was student perceptions of TAC. The dependent variable was the likelihood that the participant would choose to physically fight back in response to victimization, averaged across the minor and violent victimization scenarios. Perceptions of TAC were hypothesized to indirectly have a negative effect on the dependent variable (i.e., higher perceptions of TAC would reduce the likelihood of fighting back), though indirectly through the seeking help response variable (i.e., seeking help from a teacher, principal, or counselor). Thus, the path analysis evaluates the contention that perceptions of TAC lead to an increased likelihood of seeking help from school authority when victimized, which in turn reduces the likelihood of responding to victimization by aggressively fighting back.
Next, we tested the fit of an additional model in which the path between TAC and fighting back was allowed to vary. An indirect effect is demonstrated if this non-constrained model does not improve the statistical fit. In line with our hypothesis, when the path from perceptions of TAC to fighting back was free to vary, the statistical fit did not improve. Specifically, the RMSEA worsened from .06 to .33, indicating that the hypothesized indirect effect model fit the data better.
We first tested the alternative hypothesis that perceptions of TAC lead to lower levels of fighting back, which in turn is negatively associated with seeking school authority help (i.e., the intermediary and dependent variable of the hypothesized model were switched). The second alternative model examined perceptions of TAC as the independent variable, with two concurrent paths predicting seeking help from school authority and fighting back (i.e., two dependent variables) with no indirect effect modeled. Fit indices and path coefficients for these two alternative models are presented in Table 4. Each alternative model demonstrated worse fit when compared to the indirect effect model, further supporting our core hypothesis.
Hi! My name is Amanda Bouquet. I am currently in my junior year of high school and a part of Region 4. I have been in SWAT for a year now, and this is my first time on the YAB. I was born in Brazil and can speak three languages. I love to watch movies and go to sporting events. I spend a lot of my time volunteering and giving back to my community. I am extremely excited to be a part of the YAB this term!
Today the greatest threat to a free Internet, and broader free society, is the National Security Agency's mass spying regime. If Aaron were alive he'd be on the front lines, fighting back against these practices that undermine our ability to engage with each other as genuinely free human beings.
In our elementary school, the children are taught that if the victim will approach the bully with a group of other children and talk about the problem peacefully the bully may back down. It seems that positive peer pressure helps because he wants their acceptance. I thought this might be another method to use for our Christian kids.
Beginning in 1950, the NAACP and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund attorneys worked on a school desegregation case originating in Charleston, S.C. In 1952 the case came before the U.S. Supreme Court, whose members decided to hear it with cases from Delaware, Virginia, Kansas, and the District of Columbia under the collective title Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Thurgood Marshall and other NAACP lawyers argued the case and won. Brown marked a landmark victory in the fight for full citizenship, offering hope that the system of segregation was not unassailable.
With your LA County Library card, you can download or stream eBooks, eAudiobooks, magazines, music, and movies on your computer, tablet, or phone. It's free and you'll never have to worry about overdue fines! You'll need a library card in good standing and a PIN to access most downloadable & streaming content.
Pervy Dutch director Paul Verhoeven is better known for Basic Instinct and Showgirls, but war movies are his true métier. In this deliciously plotted WWII survival tale (a comeback of sorts for the Hollywood exile), a hotcha Jewish singer becomes a spy, a freedom fighter and a bed partner of Nazis. Talented Carice van Houten commits fully. 2b1af7f3a8