Clinical data and audiological evaluation were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Data collected included age at treatment initiation, type, and staging of the primary tumor, time elapsed between the end of the treatment and the last audiogram test, treatments received (cisplatin and/or carboplatin, cumulative dose of cisplatin or carboplatin (mg/m2), ototoxic antibiotics as aminoglycoside and ototoxic diuretics as furosemide), past history or family history of hearing affection and complete physical examination including chest, heart, abdominal and neurological examination. The main parameter to assess ototoxicity was the audiogram. Tympanometry and pure tone audiometry were done for all eligible patients before treatment and at least 2 years after the end of the treatment. HL was assessed using the Brock criteria (Clemens et al, 2019), one of the classifications specifically designed for platinum compounds related ototoxicity. Patients that developed moderate to severe HL (Grades 2, 3, or 4) were defined as cases. Patients who exhibited normal hearing function (Grade 0) were defined as controls.
This research examining predictors of cisplatin ototoxicity has not reported a difference in HL between genders. Many studies have reported the same finding.[1,15,16] However, in other studies, male gender is defined as a risk factor for cisplatin ototoxicity.[17,18] Olgun et al also reported that the male gender was associated with cisplatin ototoxicity. Moreover, it was associated with the occurrence of moderate to severe ototoxicity according to the Muenster classification. This may be due to the possible otoprotective effect of estrogen.
Mathematical analysis of sustainability: measurement, flows, networks, rates of change, uncertainty and risk, applying analysis in decision making; using quantitative evidence to support arguments; examples. MATH 033 Mathematics for Sustainability (3) (GQ) This course is one of several offered by the mathematics department with the goal of helping students from non-technical majors partially satisfy their general education quantification requirement. It is designed to provide an introduction to various mathematical modeling techniques, with an emphasis on examples related to environmental and economic sustainability. The course may be used to fulfill three credits of the GQ requirement for some majors, but it does not serve as a prerequisite for any mathematics courses and should be treated as a terminal course. The course provides students with the mathematical background and quantitative reasoning skills necessary to engage as informed citizens in discussions of sustainability related to climate change, resources, pollution, recycling, economic change, and similar matters of public interest. Students apply these skills through writing projects that require quantitative evidence to support an argument. The mathematical content of the course spans six key areas: "measuring" (representing information by numbers, problems of measurement, units, estimation skills); "flowing" (building and analyzing stock-flow models, calculations using units of energy and power, dynamic equilibria in stock-flow systems, the energy balance of the earth-sun system and the greenhouse effect); "connecting" (networks, the bystander effect, feedbacks in stock-flow models); "changing" (out-of-equilibrium stock-flow systems, exponential models, stability of equilibria in stock-flow systems, sensitivity of equilibria to changes in a parameter, tipping points in stock-flow models); "risking" (probability, expectation, bayesian inference, risk vs uncertainty; "deciding" (discounting, uses and limitations of cost-benefit analysis, introduction to game theory and the tragedy of the commons, market-based mechanisms for pollution abatement, ethical considerations).
This course presents a general view of a number of mathematical topics to a non-technical audience, often relating the mathematical topics to a historical context, and providing students with an opportunity to engage with the mathematics at an introductory level. Although some variation in topics covered may take place among different instructors at different campuses, an example of such a course focuses on a number theory theme throughout the course, beginning with the Greeks' view of integers, the concept of divisors, the calculation of greatest common divisors (which originates with Euclid), the significance of the prime numbers, the infinitude of the set of prime numbers (also known to the ancient Greeks), work on perfect numbers (which continues to be a topic of research today), and the work of Pythagoras and his famous Theorem. The course then transitions to the work of European mathematicians such as Euler and Gauss, including work on sums of two squares (which generalizes the Pythagorean Theorem), and then considering Euler's phi function, congruences, and applications to cryptography.
Finite math includes topics of mathematics which deal with finite sets. Sets and formal logic are modern concepts created by mathematicians in the mid 19th and early 20th centuries to provide a foundation for mathematical reasoning. Sets and formal logic have lead to profound mathematical discoveries and have helped to create the field of computer science in the 20th century. Today, sets and formal logic are taught as core concepts upon which all mathematics can be built. In this course, students learn the elementary mathematics of logic and sets. Logic is the symbolic, algebraic way of representing and analyzing statements and sentences. While students will get just a brief introduction to logic, the mathematics used in logic are found at the heart of computer programming and in designing electrical circuits. Problems of counting various kinds of sets lead to the study of combinatorics, the art of advanced counting. For example, if a room has twenty chairs and twelve people, in how many ways can these people occupy the chairs? And are you accounting for differences in who sits in particular chairs, or does it only matter whether a chair has a body in it? These kinds of counting problems are the basis for probability. In order to calculate the chance of a particular event occurring you must be able to count all the possible outcomes. MATH 37 is intended for students seeking core knowledge in combinatorics, probability and mathematical logic but not requiring further course work in mathematics. Students entering the class will benefit from having some experience with basic algebra and solving word problems. The course may be used to fulfill three credits of the quantification portion of the general education requirement for some majors, but does not serve as a prerequisite for any mathematics courses and should be treated as a terminal course. Class size, frequency of offering, and evaluation methods will vary by location and instructor. For these details check the specific course syllabus.
Topics in calculus with an emphasis on applications in engineering technology. MATH 210 Calculus with Engineering Technology Applications (3) is a three-credit course to be taken either after the MATH 81, MATH 82, MATH 83 sequence or after a semester of college-level calculus. The content of the course is geared toward the needs of engineering technology majors and places a large emphasis on technology and applications. The course provides mathematical tools required in the upper division engineering technology courses. A primary goal is to have students use technology to solve more realistic problems than the standard simplistic ones that can be solved by "pencil and paper." Student evaluation will be performed through exams, quizzes, graded assignments, and a cumulative final exam. It is expected that MTHBD 210 will be offered every semester with an enrollment of 44-80 students.
Topics in ordinary differential equations, linear algebra, complex numbers, Eigenvalue solutions and Laplace transform methods. MATH 211 Intermediate Calculus and Differential Equations with Applications (4) MATH 211 is a three-credit course to be taken after MATH 210. The content of the course is geared toward the needs of engineering technology majors and places a large emphasis on technology and applications. The course provides mathematical tools required in the engineering technology courses at the sixth semester and above. A primary goal is to have students use technology to solve more realistic problems than the standard simplistic ones that can be solved by "pencil and paper." Student evaluation will be performed through exams, quizzes, graded assignments, and a cumulative final exam.
Honors course in systems of linear equations; matrix algebra; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; linear systems of differential equations. MATH 220H Honors Matrices (2) (GQ)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. This course is intended as an introduction to linear algebra with a focus on solving systems for linear equations. Topics include systems of linear equations, row reduction and echelon forms, linear independence, introduction to linear transformations, matrix operations, inverse matrices, dimension and rank, determinants, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonalization, and orthogonality.The typical delivery format for the course is two 50-minute lectures per week, with typical assessment tools including examinations, quizzes, homework, and writing assignments.In contrast to the non-honors version of this course, the honors version is typically more theoretical and will often include more sophisticated problems. Moreover, certain topics are often discussed in more depth and are sometimes expanded to include applications which are not visited in the non-honors version of the course.
Honors course in three-dimensional analytic geometry; vectors in space; partial differentiation; double and triple integrals; integral vector calculus. Students who have passed either MATH 231 or MATH 232 may not schedule MATH 230 or MATH 230H for credit. MATH 230H Honors Calculus and Vector Analysis (4) This course is the third in a sequence of three calculus courses designed for students in engineering, science, and related fields. Topics include vectors in space, dot products, cross products; vector-valued functions, modeling motion, arc length, curvature; functions of several variables, limits, continuity, partial derivatives, directional derivatives, gradient vectors, Lagrange multipliers; double integrals, triple integrals; line integrals, Green's Theorem, Stokes' Theorem, the Divergence Theorem.The typical delivery format for the course is four 50-minute lectures per week, with typical assessment tools including examinations, quizzes, homework, and writing assignments.In contrast to the non-honors version of this course, the honors version is typically more theoretical and will often include more sophisticated problems. Moreover, certain topics are often discussed in more depth and are sometimes expanded to include applications which are not visited in the non-honors version of the course. 2b1af7f3a8